As stated in
the phenomenon of nuclear explosion inside a cell is as follows from the perspective of the explosive power of Pu 239 heavy metal lodged in the cell:
" Note that a radioactive element (the radionuclide being Plutonium 239 or Radium 226 (mining uranium or in a coal fired plant, the flyash)) lodged in a living cell shooting a single 5.15 MeV alpha ray may deliver (5000000 to 6000000)x10^-19 Wattseconds(Joules) in 10^-17 seconds(Ref 2) to a DNA molecule in a cell weighing 512x10^-15 kg. The dose to the cell then is about 1000 mSv. The dose to the DNA weighing much less is much much more (a million times or so)! The dose to the cell is delivered at the rate of 50-60 KW or at a power surge of average muscle power of more than a thousand people!"
Thus the power which Pu239 delivers upon deposition of the energy of the alpha ray in a DNA in which it is lodged is 50000 to 60000 Megawatts(millions of watts). This is average power of a billion people!
No wonder when this transfer of energy takes place into the DNA, the dose is a million Sieverts! Thus we see cell kills, epigenetic effects and bystander effects after generations of initially undamaged cell/cells.
Added to this is the natural background radiation enhancment by absorption of gamma rays by the heavy metal Pu 239 and subsequent emission of secondary photoelectrons whose effect is that of the deadly beta rays on the DNA.! This may go on continuously within living beings.
Thus such a high powered delivery of energy to DNA may cause damage over a wide area extending to cytoplasm and neighbouring cells. This may manifest in genomic instability including bystander effects expressed as cell death/mutations of very high frequency compared to controls and after several generations of cells. Thus the passage of a single track of Pu 239 alpha ray results in cells exhibiting chromosome instability after several generations and derived from non-irradiated cells. Thus there is no safe dose of radiation! On the other hand there is tremendous amplification of a single alpha ray.Your health is compromised irreversibly. We are converted to nuclear wastes. This is an extinction level event.
Note that Y-90 decays with a maximum beta ray energy of 2.28 MeV. So the effects are so lethal because of the power of such explosive release that during the nuclear age from 1945, India has experienced a 95% confidence level average excess infant mortality of 23(central value) to 33 million from 1945 to 1999 compared to the pre-nuclear years prior to 1945 and the world similarly between 110 million(central value) to 133 excess million infant mortality.
Epigenetics is the study of epigenetic inheritance, a set of reversible heritable changes in gene function or other cell phenotype that occur without a change in DNA sequence (genotype).See
2) E.G Wright